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This is allotment 2 of the alternation demonstrating avant-garde Azure SQL (PAAS) appearance and how to use them from Java Bounce Boot applications active on PCF (Pivotal CloudFoundry) on Azure. The aboriginal article showed how to use a Bounce Boot appliance with Azure SQL Database auto-failover groups to accommodate animation to bounded outages and absolved thru Azure Annual Agent accouterment seamless affiliation with Azure casework to applications active Pivotal CloudFoundry.

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This commodity will authenticate how to assure acute abstracts (such as password, acclaim cards, and amusing aegis numbers) in Azure SQL database. Aegis and aegis of the abstracts becomes alike added important to enterprises attractive to drift databases to the cloud. The Always Encrypted affection of Azure SQL enables barter to be assured that alike aerial advantaged but crooked users cannot admission their encrypted abstracts in the cloud. It safeguards abstracts not alone “at-rest” and ”in transit”, but additionally “in use” in any abstracts lifecycle accident and does it clearly to applications. Moreover, encryption keys are not stored aural the database, they break with the applicant (in the audience beneath — stored in Key Vault) and that’s why it keeps abstracts adequate alike from billow operators.

The Always Encrypted affection is implemented on the Disciplinarian akin and this way it is cellophane to application, with about no changes appropriate in the code. The Disciplinarian encrypts/decrypts acute abstracts central applicant applications and never reveals the encryption keys to the Database Engine. Abstracts in the SQL DB is encrypted appliance CEK (Column adept key) which is stored in encrypted anatomy central db. CEK key is encrypted appliance Adept Key which is stored alfresco the DB. We will authenticate a case area adept key is stored in Azure Key Vault.

Client appliance performs queries appliance the driver, the disciplinarian is amenable for accepting the adept key, the cavalcade encryption key, encrypting the data, and sending it to the database. A agnate breeze activity aback from the database as apparent in the annual above. For added advice on Always Encrypted and its bureaucracy accredit to the afterward article: Always Encrypted (Database Engine).

Let’s encrypt abstracts in the database acclimated in the Allotment 1 commodity Bounce Boot application; we could do that appliance SSMS (SQL Server Management Studio) or appliance PowerShell. An archetype calligraphy creating a adept key in the vault, a cavalcade encryption key, and encrypting the cavalcade could be begin on GitHub.

To accomplish a cavalcade adept key in the Azure Key Vault:

Open the database in the SSMS, right-click the table and adjure the “Encrypt Columns” wizard, go through accomplish configuring columns to be encrypted and keys:

Use the Azure key basement as accumulator for the Adept Key:

Once the changes are activated and encryption finishes, you could see the CEK key created in the database and alone metadata pointing to the Adept key:

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The Master key is not stored central the database, alone the advice on how to admission it, acclimated by driver:

You could appraise the Adept key by abyssal to the basement in the Azure portal:

Spring Boot Appliance Changes

At this stage, if we use our allotment 1 sample SpringBoot appliance as it is, will get the accolade encrypted abstracts displayed on the page. We charge to accredit JDBC disciplinarian settings to be able to encrypt/decrypt the data. Capacity on appliance Always Encrypted with JDBC disciplinarian are declared in Microsoft docs:

The arbitrary of the accomplish appropriate by Java appliance are:

Powershell example: Making Azure KeyVault keys accessible to users

Where clientId, clientSecret are applicationID and countersign of Annual Principal.

PCF Annual Agent – User Permissions for DB User

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As apparent in the commodity in Allotment 1 of the series, we use Meta Azure Annual Agent to accouterment SQL DB, an auto-failover accumulation for high-availability and the DB user. Annual Agent accoutrement new users to admission the database back assuming the bind operation. It’s acceptable convenance to accord the appliance users the atomic accessible permissions.

MASB annual agent starting from adaptation 1.7 allows to specify sql user roles and permissions that would be assigned during provisioning. Specify absence settings in MASB asphalt in Operations Manager as apparent below.

Update Annual Agent Asphalt “Default Ambit config” area for Azure SQL DB to accommodate permissions appropriate for accessing Encryption Keys:

Apply the changes, and delay until the accession completes.

Updating jdbcURL in SpringBoot appliance to accommodate a new banderole could be done actual calmly in

But the botheration arises back the appliance has to be deployed on PCF, and back the sql-db annual is apprenticed to the application, advice on how to affix to database including jdbcUrl is injected by annual connectors into VCAP_SERVICES and anesthetized to the appliance as apparent below:

Starting with SpringBoot 2, it comes by absence with HikariCP as a affiliation basin mechanism. Datasource automatically injected by bounce autoconfiguration and bounce billow connectors will be of HikariDataSource type. Accredit to the capacity here.

Luckily, there is addendum apparatus in HikariCP that allows injecting custom settings into DataSource configuration. To accomplish customizations, we could use the DataSourceProperties  chic to set the new backdrop that are specific to drivers or pool. To set this acreage we charge to amend or PCF ambiance variables with the afterward setting: | boot forms storage

spring.datasource.dataSourceProperties.ColumnEncryptionSetting: Enabled

Spring Billow Connectors will canyon this ambience to the basal Datasource.

Note: In SpringBoot 1.5.X, applications that use DBCP as a absence affiliation pool, the afterward ambience will inject custom property:

spring.datasource.connectionProperties: ColumnEncryptionSetting=Enabled

Setting the Cavalcade Encryption provider is a changeless adjustment on the SQLConnection and could be done alone already in appliance startup. The easiest pluggability point is to apparatus BeanPostProcessor which will set the appropriate settings afterwards Datasource bean is initialized. The abounding cipher of post-processing is accessible at GitHub.

To accomplish enabling encryption to be configurable we will add  @ConditionalOnProperty  and this chic postprocessing login will be activated if the ambience we declared in antecedent section:

ClientID and ClientSecret for annual arch are anesthetized to the Bean from the environment.

Update appliance manifest.yml to set the ambience declared above:

Please accredit to Allotment 1 commodity on the capacity of creating Azure SQL DB with MASB. Appliance and sample agreement files are available here.

The arbitrary of body and deployment commands:

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./gradlew apple-pie assemble

If a database was not created yet, run afterward to actualize the DB and Failover group:

Deploy the application:

cf advance -f manifest.yml

The deployed appliance should be active and assuming a Health affiliation to SQL Server:

And the settings will accept the ethics to accredit Encryption and Annual Arch to affix to Azure Key Vault.

The appliance will appearance decrypted ethics for the fields, and already new items added, you could appraise the database to see that the ethics are encrypted in the DB.

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Following the three Rs of action security, we could Rotate the adept key periodically. It could be done appliance SSMS or Powershell. The change is cellophane to the appliance as metadata in the database will point to the new key in Azure KeyVault.

During all-encompassing encryption testing, back we were modifying encryption arrangement and deleting/re-creating keys, we encountered afterward errors back active the application

SQL Error: 206, SQLState: S0002

h.engine.jdbc.spi.SqlExceptionHelper : Operand blazon clash: varchar(6) encrypted with


Some ambit or columns of the accumulation crave to be encrypted, but the agnate cavalcade encryption key cannot be found. Use sp_refresh_parameter_encryption to brace the bore ambit metadata.

Solution is to brace the accumulation of the DB:


Always Encrypted provides a abundant way to defended your data, but there are cardinal of limitations and considerations that charge to be taken into account. Accredit to the annual of limitations at Microsoft: Always Encrypted features.

Verify which datatypes and Cavalcade options are supported.

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Although deterministic encryption is supported, not all types of queries are accurate on the encrypted fields.

The appliance charge use parameterized queries, as the disciplinarian collaborates with the DB agent to actuate cavalcade encryption.

In this commodity we accept approved “Always Encrypted” — a able affection of Azure SQL accouterment end-to-end aegis for the abstracts in the cloud. We accept apparent that alone a few accessory changes are appropriate in the application, and it is cellophane to the queries performed by the appliance logic.

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